Convulsions are involuntary muscle contractions of an attack-like nature

Almost everyone has experienced a single cramp at least once in their life. Most often it is a sudden painful contraction (spasm) of muscles lasting from a few seconds to several minutes.
In most cases, a single episode of cramps passes without consequences or special treatment. But if these episodes recur frequently, it is necessary to go to the doctor, as it may indicate the presence of serious health problems.
The most common cramps are of the calves and thighs, as well as the muscles of the feet and hands. Seizures of facial muscles, neck, larynx, respiratory muscles are also quite common (convulsive activity in them leads to stuttering). This drug helps against some types of seizures:

Varieties of seizures

woman massaging her leg on white bed

There are several varieties of seizures, classifying them according to different characteristics.

By nature:

Tonic – strong muscular tension, forcing to “freeze” in an unnatural posture;
Clonic – rhythmic twitching of a muscle/muscle. Various tics, as well as stuttering (convulsions of respiratory muscles, larynx) belong exactly to the clonic type;
Tonic-clonic and clonic-tonic – are characteristic of epilepsy, when during a seizure, the tonic and clonic phases alternate with each other.
By prevalence:

Local (focal) seizures – contraction of individual muscles or groups of muscles;
Generalized convulsions – the contractile activity covers several muscle groups.
According to the mechanism of development:

Convulsive reaction occurs in response to micronutrient deficiencies, infection, insufficient blood supply, intoxication, being in a stuffy room, etc;
seizure syndrome develops, as a rule, in diseases of the nervous system, which help to identify the study of electrical activity of the brain;
epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, often generalized (covering the entire body) convulsive seizures.
Possible causes of seizures

Muscle cramps can result from a variety of conditions, such as:

Excessive intake of alcohol, medications (diuretics, antidepressants, etc.), caffeine, nicotine;
An increase in body temperature above 38.5 ° C – the so-called subfebrile seizures, are common mainly in young children (under four years);
Brain tumors and other changes in brain structure;
deterioration of cerebral circulation, craniocerebral injuries;
Increased blood pressure and blood glucose levels;
acute dehydration of the body;
disorder of water-salt metabolism, deficiency of microelements;
Severe fatigue, lack of sleep, prolonged psychological stress;
Excessive physical activity or muscle strain;
nerve entrapment;
overcooling or overheating;
anemia (decreased concentration of hemoglobin in the blood);
genetic predisposition to increased seizure activity.

In what diseases seizures occur

Most (up to 90%) of seizures occur once and remain in memory as an unpleasant incident. But if they occur over and over again – most likely in this way the body signals about some serious disorders. Harmless blepharospasm (eyelid trembling) may indicate the development of a dangerous syndrome of “dry eye” or even glaucoma (increase in intraocular pressure). Clonic hand cramps could indicate the development of Parkinson’s disease, etc.
Detecting these problems as early as possible and starting timely treatment means prolonging the period of active life, preventing the reduction of its quality and disability.
Seizures of the same form may occur with various diseases of the nervous system, such as meningitis, encephalitis, brain tumors, aneurysms (bulging of the wall) of the brain vessels, intracerebral hemorrhages, etc. Seizures are also often an early symptom of hereditary degenerative diseases of the nervous system, as well as progressive senile dementias.

Seizures often accompany diseases of the cardiovascular system, autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatism, etc.
Seizures caused by impaired brain function develop in hypo- and hyperglycemic, as well as in hepatic coma.
Convulsions in young children, not associated with an increase in body temperature, may be a symptom of brain and cardiovascular system malformations, hereditary diseases.

Categories: Uncategorized